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The site of the principia (HQ) of the fortress lies under the foundations of York Minster, and excavations in the undercroft have revealed part of the Roman structure and columns.

In 866, Northumbria was in the midst of internecine struggles when the Vikings raided and captured York.

Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe.

The form York was first recorded in the 13th century.

Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 80 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary.

By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was occupied by a tribe known to the Romans as the Brigantes.

The Brigantian tribal area initially became a Roman client state, but, later its leaders became more hostile and the Roman Ninth Legion was sent north of the Humber into Brigantian territory.Old Irish ibar "yew-tree", Welsh efwr "alder buckthorn", Breton evor "alder buckthorn") and suffix *-āko(n) "place" (cf.Welsh -og) meaning either "place of the yew trees" (cf.From 1996, the term 'City of York' describes a local government district (a unitary authority area) which includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries.In 2011 the urban area had a population of 153,717, The word York (Old Norse: Jórvík) derives from the Latinised name for the city, variously rendered as Eboracum, Eburacum or Eburaci.When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík.